Buoyed by the successes in the first phase of the WSH project, CFAR has intensified its activities of community strengthening at the level of the settlement, the city as well as across cities. It aims at bringing a community-led convergence for city governments to understand the sanitation needs of the urban poor, especially those of women and girls. Efforts at influencing behaviour and building an enabling environment have also been redoubled. 


Partnerships have been integral to CFAR’s interventions be it with the state government’s Mission Convergence or the Delhi Urban Shelter Improvement Board (DUSIB) in Delhi or with the Ministry of Urban Development in Jaipur or with the Women and Child Development (ICDS) Department in Kolkata.

The Relevance Of “Khichdi Schools...

Thanks to the efforts of Alor disha, the number of anganwadi centres have multiplied in the municipal area of … a boon for small children and pregnant mothers, the centres are also the perfect site for the members of Alor Disha talk to women about basic hygiene practices and nutrition. Members keep a close eye to ensure efficient functioning of the anganwadi centres besides traini...

The idea is to bring together representatives of the local government, municipal authority and the various departments to respond to the water, sanitation and hygiene needs and demands of the urban poor. The recent signing of the MoU with Delhi Urban Shelter Improvement Board (DUSIB) is a case in point.

As part of the MoU with DUSIB to strengthen community engagement CFAR was tasked with providing evidence on quantity and quality of access to and use of sanitation services across the 12 Adarsh Bastis (model settlements).. While CFAR facilitated the exercise, the Community Management Committees (CMCs) and the Community Based Organization, namely the Mahila Pragati Manch played a critical role in creating consensus among the residents, ensuring orderly distribution of water, earmarking the location for pipelines and taps and initiating a Monthly Card System for the use of CTCs. Such efforts are being replicated in Rajasthan and Kolkata. The CMC model has been scaled up in the second phase of the project across Delhi, Jaipur and Kolkata and introduced in the new settlements were CFAR plans to extend its intervention. 

On the other hand, government officials have attempted to initiate effective and mutually useful collaborations, In December 2016, CMC members from 11 settlements in Delhi met with the Senior Engineer of DUSIB to understand the technical aspects of construction of drains, parks, pavements and CTC, laying water pipelines, electricity and sewerage connections. A larger training exercise was held with CMC and CBO representatives from five cities in February 2017.

Separate training workshops were held in Rajasthan on the construction techniques of twin-pit toilets. An exposure visit was also organized with 17 participants to Sewa Mandir, Udaipur to understand techniques used in urban settlements such as Ecosan toilets and properly constructed septic tanks. The participants also gained an insight into Solid Waste Management techniques in urban settlements.

Strengthening engagement on Faecal Sludge and Septage Management

Sanitation is mostly associated with municipal solid waste, not liquid waste or human waste. Typically, the sanitation department in the municipalities in Indian cities deals only with solid waste. CFAR has initiated discussion on the issue of FSSM, in all the intervention areas. Large parts of urban India are not connected to the municipal sewer system, making people dependent on septic tanks and insanitary toilets. In such a situation, dealing with faecal waste assumes primary importance. CFAR understands that systematic training on all aspects of FSSM is essential. There is a need to demystify the technology options and create awareness among community on risks of untreated faecal waste and the need for proper construction, transportation and disposal of faecal waste. Benefits of SBM can be achieved only when there is proper management of faecal sludge and septage across the sanitation service chain.